Thursday, March 12, 2020

Definition and Examples of Linguistic Insecurity

Definition and Examples of Linguistic Insecurity Linguistic insecurity is the anxiety or lack of confidence experienced by speakers and writers who believe that their use of language does not conform to the principles and practices of standard English. The term linguistic insecurity was introduced by American linguist William Labov in the 1960s.   Observations While there seems to be no lack of confidence in exporting native models of English as a foreign language, it is at the same time almost paradoxical to find among all the major anglophone nations such enormous linguistic insecurity about standards of English usage. The complaint tradition stretching back to medieval times is intense on both sides of the Atlantic (see Romaine 1991 on its manifestations in Australia). Ferguson and Heath (1981), for instance, comment on prescriptivism in the US that quite possibly no other nation buys so many style manuals and how-to-improve-your-language books in proportion to the population.(Suzanne Romaine, Introduction, The Cambridge History of the English Language, Vol. IV. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999) Sources of Linguistic Insecurity [Linguist and cultural historian Dennis Baron] suggests that this linguistic insecurity has two sources: the notion of more or less prestigious dialects, on the one hand, and the exaggerated idea of correctness in language, on the other. . . . It might be additionally suggested that this American linguistic insecurity comes, historically, from a third source: a feeling of cultural inferiority (or insecurity), of which a special case is the belief that somehow American English is less good or proper than British English. Indeed, one can hear frequent comments made by Americans that indicate that they regard British English as a superior form of English.(Zoltn Kà ¶vecses, American English: An Introduction. Broadview, 2000) Linguistic Insecurity and Social Class A great deal of evidence shows that lower-middle-class speakers have the greatest tendency towards linguistic insecurity, and therefore tend to adopt, even in middle age, the prestige forms used by the youngest members of the highest-ranking class. This linguistic insecurity is shown by the very wide range of stylistic variation used by lower-middle-class speakers; by their great fluctuation within a given stylistic context; by their conscious striving for correctness; and by their strongly negative attitudes towards their native speech pattern.(William Labov, Sociolinguistic Patterns. Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1972) Also Known As: schizoglossia, language complex

Monday, February 24, 2020

The matrix Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The matrix - Essay Example The directors of the movie ‘The Matrix’ are the two Wachowski siblings; they are Andy Wachowski and Lana Wachowski. The two brothers were very enthusiastic about the movie even before the making of it. It was a very ambitious project for them. They have portrayed the religious belief and the conception that they possess in well documented manner in the movie. The religious inclination of the siblings came from their mother. Their mother was originally a catholic, so the directors have got some sort of inclination towards the religious beliefs and conceptions. Moreover, their mother was also a Shamanist, i.e. she believed in reaching to an alternate state of mind. She also used to develop an energy that helped her to communicate with the various spirits. Furthermore, she also used to have the power to enter into the benevolent and malevolent spirits of the universe and can highly influence them. These environments of religion and spiritual beliefs have highly influenced s iblings to have a strong inclination towards it. Hence, they were influenced to make the movie. The movie, ‘The Matrix’, has also shown a suffice presence of the religious and spiritual concepts. Moreover, the two siblings had immensely struggled in their early life of childhood. They also believe that they were able to survive in those struggling days only because of the blessings of the God and the holy spirits (Gerrold 1-257). Literally speaking, ‘The Matrix’ is the development of an object that is influenced by the political, cultural and social environment. There are various religions practiced in this world that believe the concept portrayed in the movie, ‘The Matrix’. Moreover, the religious beliefs conveyed in Christianity and Buddhism shows strong similarity in their doctrines to the message that is being portrayed in the movie. Many people in this world believe that the

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Reaction response 13 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Reaction response 13 - Essay Example For instance, when students Face book in class instead of listening to the facilitator, there is a reduction on attentiveness and the focus is on the face book or social media. The ability to link with others in the society has been affected by the advent of social media. Therefore, the future of face-to-face communication is bleak and focus should be on communication improvement to ensure change in behavior. For example, in the speech Turkle discusses lady who lost his baby and was talking to a robot instead of being consoled by her friends and relatives. This scene indicates the challenge social media has brought to the society. The focus is on the new media which limits face-to-face communication and changes how we relate in the society have adverse effect on development of personal image (Macy and Thompson 93). Social media has been viewed as the best platform because it allows individuals to present themselves the way they want compared to real communication which allows the listener to develop a perspective about the presenter. Macy, Beverly and Teri Thompson. The Power of Real Time Social Media Marketing:How to Attract and Retain Customers and Grow the Bottom Line in the Globally Connected World. McGraw-Hill Professional.,

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The convict Able Magwitch Essay Example for Free

The convict Able Magwitch Essay Great Expectations is a novel written by Charles Dickens during the Victorian period, around 1860-61. Dickins today is regarded to be one of the greatest novelists of all time. Great Expectations portrays the predominate themes of a Dickins novel as its central ideas revolve around the division of rich and poor, and how their status is viewed by the society in which they live. The novel Great Expectations is based upon the life of a young orphaned boy named Pip, whom is brought up by his older sister Mrs Joe Gargery and Mr Joe Gargery his brother in law living in Kent. Pip faced with various different incidents, as well as changes that take place in his life, which then structure his future self, as he grows into a man. Such events include him meeting Magwitch, Miss Havisham, and Estella, all of which have diverse effects on him. Pip is the protagonist and narrator of the novel and is reflecting on his past, explaining his story of his younger self. Pip is passionate, romantic, and somewhat unrealistic at heart, as he tends to expect more for himself than is possible, as he has a powerful conscience, and he deeply wants to improve himself, both morally and socially. He grows up to be a rich arrogant gentleman, influenced by Miss Havisham and his love for Estella. Despite his new lifestyle, he is later reminded in the novel, of his former self. This transformation in Pip, from poor to rich clearly reflects the distinct division and contrast in class throughout the Victorian era. Miss Havisham is a wealthy, eccentric old woman who lives in a manor called Satis House near Pips village. She is manic and often seems insane, wonders around her house in a faded wedding dress, keeping a decaying feast on her table. As a young lady, Miss Havisham was jilted by her fianc minutes before her wedding, and now she has a vendetta against all men. She deliberately raises Estella to be the tool of her revenge, training her beautiful ward to break mens hearts. Miss Havishams beautiful young ward, Estella is Pips unattainable dream throughout the novel. He loves her passionately, but though she sometimes seems to consider him a friend, she is usually cold, cruel, and uninterested in him. As they grow up together she repeatedly warns him that she has no heart. Pip also later discovers that Estella is Magwitchs daughter. One of the main themes of this story is wealth. In Victorian times money meant everything and it was what gave people their status in society. Ones individual wealth was reflected by their job and sense of dress, placing them into a society in which they were approved of. Money was a measure of giving a person everything they wanted, from luxuries, to happiness or even to a persons heart. Great Expectations on the other hand proves to illustrate an exact parody of the fact stated above. This is largely due to Pip going though much misfortune, suffering and tragedy as a gentleman, yet the novel points out that no amount of wealth buys you true love or friends, just grief and agony. In chapter one, the first meeting between Magwitch and Pip is set in a bleak place over grown with nettles in a churchyard which was intersected with dykes and mounds and gates that have scattered cattle feeding on it down at the marshes in Kent. The weather, in addition to the surroundings, is as follows; wind was rushing and the distant savage lair was the sea. This makes everything sound very quiet, eerie, and isolated. Also the use of the metaphor describing the sea distant savage lair emphasises how it seems so sister and dangerous. The use if this also creates an image in the readers mind of a dark, almost ghostly sea, making the setting so far very unsettling to the reader. This suggests that the meeting between the two characters may not be a friendly sort; rather it indicates its going to be more of a grim and disturbing type sensing that theres trouble brewing. The weather helps sets the scene and brings it all together, by making the reader anxious and curious about whats going to happen next, through using language such as savage and dark flat wilderness. These words are very negative and unpleasant; hence it brings up curiosity as to why its like that. Overall the setting of the first meeting is very pessimistic and sinister. This makes the setting seem very unappealing, causing the reader build up interest as to why the setting is such and also comes to understand that somethings about to happen, therefore whatever it is, it wont be something good when taking into account and reflecting back at the overall setting, including the weather. This use of subtle contrast from Dickins is in my view very clever as it stands almost as a metaphor for the context of the novel. In the Victorian era the amount of money possessed by each individual was a measure of your popularity and status. Despite this it did not always bring you happiness and contentment. The use of dismal and moody atmospheric description clearly symbolises how not everything is what it seems, as Pip and Magwitch, are not in the end foes as it seems they are going to be in the initial stages of the novel, but instead friends, with respect and understanding for each other. Many years later, the second meeting takes place at Pips home down in Garden-court, in London. Once again, the weather coincidently repeats itself just like chapter ones setting of the first meeting, wretched weather; stormy and wet, stormy, and wet; and mud, mud, mud, deep in all the streets is described as a vast heavy veil which has been around for quite a while. We could suspect that each time Magwitch and Pip are about to meet, the weather acts as an indication of trouble brewing before the meeting has commenced. This is because the weather alters by deteriorating to damp, murky, and stormy, setting the mood or emotion of the meeting that is to take place. All in all, Charles Dickens has created the setting to be very disturbing and eerie, simply by using a savage array of negative words like wretched and savage, causing the setting to appear in a negative light. This makes the reader concerned and question what is to happen next in the meeting between Pip and Magwitch, for the second time. The very first meeting with Pip and Magwitch shows just how different and unique the two characters are when compared to one and other. The story is told by Pip as a grown man, explaining and looking back at his past using his infant tongue to tell the story. However, in the second meeting Pip is no longer a boy, but a mature man who is three-and-twenty years of age whom is narrator and protagonist of the novel, Great Expectations.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Eve’s Ribcage :: Essays Papers

Eve’s Ribcage Eve’s bedroom was the only place in the world that Josh felt comfortable. The bare and slightly yellowed walls held a certain mysterious wonder for him. The key to the room’s beauty lay in its bareness and simplicity, like old Mexican monasteries with terra cotta tiling on the roof. Josh preferred to keep the lights off and the blinds cracked so that the afternoon filtered in through the window, making thin picturesque rays of light. They painted Eve’s body in long soft strips of sun. When she reclined on her side in the way that she did it reminded him of those nature documentaries that film a lioness lying around in tall grass all day, waiting for dumb animals with long legs to run by and get killed. She was all taut muscle under brown skin accented with bold shadows, a delicate but solid frame slowly rising and falling with each breath. Eve’s feral qualities manifested themselves in her face especially. That strange expression she had: a mixture of pain and pride, boredom and beauty. Her face was always beautiful, no matter what expression she chose to wear. Her sad almond eyes would stare through Josh and beyond into deeper things. This made him want to ask her what she was thinking about, but he rarely ever did. April’s answers never shed light on the mystery of her melancholy and oftentimes they seemed to push him further away. Now she lies with her back facing him, the contour of her naked body a soft watercolor landscape of hills and valleys. He feels like a tourist lying beside her for the last hour or so; absorbing her, analyzing her, thinking about her. She gazes into heaven and talks to the angels while he lies beside her and marvels like a man who has at last reached the end of a long holy pilgrimage. Share my world Don’t you leave Promise I’ll be here Whenever you need me near†¦ Mary J. Blige croaks out her sultry ballad softly in the background. â€Å"Eve†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Her name echoes and makes him feel he as a separate entity all the more acutely. â€Å"You okay?

Monday, January 13, 2020

Dystopian society Essay

Societies that are futuristic in settings are what we call a dystopian society. Dystopia is literary the opposite of what a utopian community will be like. In dystopia, everything is distorted where people are ruled by either a strong-opposed individual through the use of militarism or technologies and also by technology themselves. Citizens of a dystopian community doesn’t hold their own rights and are usually treated inhumanely, creating a fearsome and dark environment. Short stories such as â€Å"The Lottery† written by Shirley Jackson typically follows a dystopian society. The author first introduces the story to be a utopian community where she describes the day as â€Å"clear and sunny, with the fresh warmth of a full-summer day; the flowers were blossoming profusely and the grass was richly green (Para. 1).† This entices our feeling of comfort and invites us to see what this day is all about, not knowing of what might happen in the end. The fact that Jackson first introduces us into such a calming scenery but ends it in such a misery, dehumanizes the mindset that such a â€Å"perfect† community can hide such monstrous activity. Dehumanization is a great deal in this short story where the villagers are blindly following the tradition of stoning the lottery’s winner to death and treating the event like a festivity. Dehumanization is also seen through the villager’s actions such as: â€Å"The people had done it so many times that they only half listened to the directions; most of them were quite. wetting their lips. not looking around (Para. 20).† Jackson creates this sense that these villagers have done it so many times that they don’t even care anymore and just what this lottery to be over with, so that they can go back to their daily lives. The villagers were describe as quite because they don’t want to make the lottery any longer than it is already and it can also be taken up as an acceptance to the events that follows. Some are wetting their lips which creates this anxiousness and ill-minded thoughts of wanting to kill someone. Excitement that they too will have a bountiful year again through the sacrifice of one of their own. Fear is yet another convention of dystopia that Jackson utilizes in this short story. Fear of the unknown by the audience and the fear of death. Fear is seen through the character of Tessie Hutchinson, who in the beginning of the story where like everybody else. She was nonchalant to the event and was conversing with the villagers like normal people would but all of this changes after she was picked by the lottery. She screams and tell everyone how â€Å"it isn’t fair, it isn’t right (Para. 80),† which contradicts her actions in the beginning. Fear is also seen where the villagers were â€Å"not looking around (Para. 20),† which describes how they individually doesn’t want to see the faces of the people who they will have to kill or know that they can be the one to die that day. The black box that contains the papers of the lottery is a symbolism of fear in the story. It presents death not only by the use of the color black but also because it holds the one paper that is the deciding factor of being the winner of the lottery. This is seen as â€Å"the villagers kept their distance, leaving a space between themselves and the stool (Para.4),† where they are unconsciously afraid of the lottery but doesn’t protest about its effects. Work Cited â€Å"Dystopias: Definition and Characteristics.† ReadWriteThink, n.d Web. 18 Jan 2013 â€Å"The Lottery.† American Literature. N.p, n.d Web. 18 Jan 2013

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Anderson Plastics Inc. Company Essay - 771 Words

Case Study In this case study Roger Gray and the Anderson Plastics Inc. Company has a many purchasing problems and concerns. All of these problems are not directly caused my Roger Gray himself or the purchasing department. In this report I will explain these problems and recommend ways in which these problems can be resolved. One problem in this company is the lack of staff in the purchasing department. The plants number of products has increased from 250 to 550 and Roger Gray is still the only real purchasing agent for the company. I believe with more help Roger Gray could spend more time monitoring inventories instead of filling out order forms on the computer. If Roger Gray could have more help with doing the simple tasks in this†¦show more content†¦Holding more of the stock on hand would also be an appropriate way to help prevent stock outs. The company has never criticized Roger Gray for having too many items in stock. It is not necessary to hold the extra items that you don’t sell as much in stock, just the primary items. By holding more of the primary resources in stock you will still be able to produce the items that generate the most income. This will help keep customers happy, and will also keep some of the plant running saving some money for the company. The materials management systems need to be updated. They are never truly up-to-date or real time amounts. The case says that the systems are usually a day or two behind so Roger never actually knows what he has in stock. In order for Roger Gray to be able to do his job more effectively it would help if he knew what he had on hand at any given time. Upgraded computer and company software and hardware as a whole would make the company more efficient. The company may also need to find a different way of controlling and monitoring stock numbers. 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